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In medicine, hematuria (or "haematuria") is the presence of bloodin the urine. It is a signof a large number of diseases of the kidneysand the urinary tract, ranging from trivial to lethal.
Occasionally "hemoglobinuria" is used synonymously, although more precisely it only refers to hemoglobinin the urine.
- 1 Types
- 2 Analysis
- 3 Diagnosis
- 4 Causes
Red decolouration of the urine can have various causes:
- Red blood cells
- Microscopic hematuria(small amounts of blood, can only be seen on urinalysisor light microscopy)
- Macroscopic(or "frank" or "gross") hematuria
- Hemoglobin(only the red pigment, not the red blood cells)
- Other pigments (e.g. porphyrinsin porphyria)
A patient will be asked a number of questions:
- Have you passed any blood clots?
- Has a kidney stonebeen passed (noise in toilet bowl)?
- Is the red colour mixed in completely, or does the colour change during an episode of urination?
- Does it only occur after getting up?
- Have you recently had a sore throat?
Often, the diagnosis is made on the basis of the medical history and some blood tests—especially in young people in whom the risk of malignancy is negligible and the symptoms are generally self-limited.
Ultrasoundinvestigation of the renal tract is often used to distinguish between various sources of bleeding. X-rayscan be used to identify kidney stones, although CT scanningis probably more precise.
In older patients, cystoscopywith biopsyof suspected lesions is often employed to investigate for bladder cancer.
Common causes of macroscopic hematuria include:
- IgA nephropathy("Berger's disease") - occurs during viral infections in predisposed patients;
- Kidney stones(or bladder stones, now a rare disease);
- Bladder cancer;
- Renal cell carcinoma- occasionally presents with bleeding;
- Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria- a rare diseasewhere hemoglobinof hemolysedcells is passed into the urine.de:Hämaturie
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hematuria Wikipedia article Hematuria.