The Glycemic Index (also glycaemic index, GI) is a ranking system for carbohydratesbased on their immediate effect on blood glucoselevels. It compares carbohydrates gram for gram in individual foods, providing a numerical, evidence-based index of postprandial (post-meal) glycemia. The concept was invented by Dr. David J. Jenkinsand colleagues in 1981at the University of Toronto.
The glycemic index of a food is defined by the area under the 2 hour blood glucose response curve (AUC) following the ingestion of a fixed portion of carbohydrate (usually 50 g). The AUC of the test food is divided by the AUC of the standard (either glucose or white bread) and multiplied by 100. The average GI value is calculated from data collected in 10 human subjects. Both the standard and test food must contain an equal amount of available carbohydrate. The result gives a relative ranking for each tested food (Brouns et al, 2005).
Carbohydrates that break down rapidly during digestionhave the highest glycemic indices. An increased blood glucose response occurs very quickly. Carbohydrates that break down slowly, releasing glucose gradually into the blood stream, have a low glycemic index. A lower glycemic index suggests slower rates of digestion and absorption of the sugars and starches in the foods and may also indicate greater extraction from the liver and periphery of the products of carbohydrate digestion. Additionally, a lower glycemic response equates to a lower insulindemand, better long-term blood glucose control and a reduction in blood lipids.
Glycemic index values for different foods are calculated by comparing measurements of their effect on blood glucose with an equal carbohydrate portion of a reference food. The current scientific validated methods use glucose as the reference food. Glucose has a glycemic index value of 100. This has the advantages in that it is universal and it results in maximum GI values of approximately 100.
- 1 Glycemic Index of Foods
- 2 Disease Prevention
- 3 Weight Control
- 4 Criticism
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Glycemic Index of Foods
GI values can be interpreted intuitively as percentages on an absolute scale and are commonly interpreted as follows:
- Low GI - less than 55
- Intermediate GI - between 56 and 69
- High GI - higher than 70
A low GI food will release energy slowly and steadily and is appropriate for diabetics, dieters and endurance athletes. A high GI food will provide a rapid rise in blood sugar levels and is suitable for post-endurance exercise energy recovery.
Previously, white bread was sometimes used as a reference food (if white bread = 100, then glucose = 140). For people whose staplecarbohydrate source is white bread, this had the advantage of conveying directly whether replacement of the dietary staple with a different food would result in faster or slower blood glucose response. The disadvantages with this system were that the reference food was not well-defined, and the GI scale was culture dependent.
The glycemic effect of foods depends on a number of factors such as the type of starch(amylosevs amylopectin), physical entrapment of the starch molecules within the food, fat content of the food and increased acidity of the meal - adding vinegarfor example, will lower the GI. The presence of fat or dietary fibrecan inhibit carbohydrateabsorption, thus lowering the GI. Unrefined breads with higher amounts of fibre generally have a lower GI value than white breads but, while adding butter or oil will lower the GI of bread, the GI ranking does not change. That is, with or without additions, there is still a higher blood glucose curve after white bread than after a low GI bread such as pumpernickel.
The glycemic index can only be applied to foods with a reasonable carbohydrate content, as the test relies on subjects consuming enough of the test food to yield about 50 g of available carbohydrate. High fat or high protein foods such as meat, eggs, nuts and cheese have a negligible GI. Furthermore, because many fruits and vegetables (but not potatoes) contain very little carbohydrate per serving, they have very low GI values and are regarded as "free" foods. This also applies to carrots, which were originally and incorrectly reported as having a high GI (Brand-Miller et al, 2005). Alcoholic beverages have been reported to have low GI values, however it should be noted that beer has a moderate GI. Recent studies have shown that the consumption of an alcoholic drink prior to a meal reduces the GI of the meal by approximately 15% (Brand-Miller, in press).
Several lines of recent scientific evidence have shown that individuals who followed a low GI diet over many years were at a significantly lower risk for developing both type 2 diabetesand coronary heart disease. High blood glucose levels or repeated glycemic "spikes" following a meal may promote these diseases by increasing oxidative damage to the vasculature and also by the direct increase in insulinlevels (Temelkova-Kurktschiev et al, 2000). In the past, postmeal hyperglycemiahas been a risk factor mainly associated with diabetes, however more recent evidence shows that postprandial hyperglycemia presents an increased risk for atherosclerosisin the non-diabetic population (Balkau et al, 1998).
Recent animal research provides compelling evidence that high GI carbohydrate is associated with increased risk of obesity. In human trials, it is typically difficult to separate the effects from GI and from other potentially confounding factors such as fibre content, palatability, and compliance. In the study (Pawlak et al, 2004), male rats were split into a high and low GI group over 18 weeks while mean bodyweight was maintained. Rats fed the high GI diet were 71% fatter and 8% less lean than the low GI group. Postmeal glycemiaand insulinlevels were significantly higher and plasma triglycerideswere three-fold greater in the high GI fed rats. Furthermore, pancreatic islet cellssuffered ?severely disorganised architecture and extensive fibrosis?. The evidence in this study showed that continued consumption of high glycemic index carbohydrates would likely have led to the development of severe metabolic abnormalities.
The glycemic index has been criticised for the following reasons:
- the GI of a food varies depending on the kind of food, its ripeness, the length of time it was stored, how it was cooked, its variety (potatoes from Australia, for example, have a much higher GI than potatoes from the United States), and how it was processed or manufactured.
- the GI of a food varies from person to person and even in a single individual from day to day, depending on blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, and other factors.
- the GI of a mixed meal is difficult to predict.
- the GI value is based on a portion that contains 50 grams of carbohydrate only.
- a limited range of data and daily fluctuations in an individual?s glycemic response.
Some of these criticisms can be addressed by taking the Glycemic loadinto account. This combined approach is, however, somewhat more complicated, and therefore harder to use in giving dietary advice.
- Balkau et al (1998) High blood glucose concentration is a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged nondiabetic men. 20-year follow-up in the Whitehall Study, the Paris Prospective Study, and the Helsinki Policemen Study. Diabetes Care 1998 Mar;21(3):360-7
- Brand-Miller et al (2005). The Low GI Diet Revolution: The Definitive Science-based Weight Loss Plan. Marlowe & Company. New York, NY.
- Brouns et al (2005). Glycaemic index methodology. Nutrition Research Reviews 18; 145-171
- DJ Jenkins et al (1981). Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34; 362-366
- Pawlak et al (2004). Effects of dietary glycaemic index on adiposity, glucose homoeostasis, and plasma lipids in animals. Lancet 28;364(9436):778-85
- Temelkova-Kurktschiev et al (2000). Postchallenge plasma glucose and glycemic spikes are more strongly associated with atherosclerosis than fasting glucose or HbA1c level. Diabetes Care 2000 Dec;23(12):1830-4
- Glycemic index website - University of Sydney
- Glycemic index newsletter
- GI database
- International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002
- A List of Foods by GI (Glycemic Index) and GL (Glycemic Load)da:Glykćmisk indeks
Categories: Nutrition| Diabetes
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycemic+index Wikipedia article Glycemic index.