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Nephritic syndrome is a collection of signs (known as a syndrome) associated with disorders affecting the kidneys, more specifically glomerulardisorders.
- 1 Signs and symptoms
- 2 Diagnosis
- 3 Pathophysiology
- 4 Differential diagnosis
- 4.1 Focal proliferative
- 4.2 Diffuse proliferative
- 5 Treatment
- 6 Prognosis
- 7 External links
Signs and symptoms
Nephritic syndrome is characterized by proteinuria(protein in the urine), hematuria(blood in the urine), azotemia(elevated blood nitrogen), red blood cell(RBC) casts, oliguria(low urine output <400 mL/day) and hypertension(high blood pressure). The main features are hypertension and RBC casts. The proteinuria in nephritic syndrome is not severe, if it is severe the patient likely has a mix of nephritic syndrome and nephrotic syndrome.
Mnemonic: PHAROH = Proteinuria, Hematuria, Azotemia, RBC casts, Oliguria, Hypertension
Nephritic syndrome is not a specific diagnosis. It is a clinical syndrome and characterized by the above signs.
An anti-streptolysin O titre (or ASOT) is typically done to test for exposure to streptococci.
The exact pathophysiologyis dependent on the specific diagnosis. However, the common features are an inflammationof the glomeruli, leading to salt and water retention and a reduction in the kidney function.
The two classic diagnoses of nephritic syndrome are:
- post-infectious glomerulonephritis- also sometimes called post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis as the streptococcus is the most common cause and at one time was thought to be the only cause.
- crescentic glomerulonephritis
Nephritic syndrome causes are usually grouped into 'focal proliferative' and 'diffuse proliferative' on the basis of histology(obtained by a renal biopsy).
- IgA nephropathy
- chronic liver failure
- Celiac sprue
- dermatitis herpetiformis
- Henoch-Schoenlein purpura
- Alport syndrome
- focal glomerulosclerosis
- membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (malaria, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, chronic infection, sickle-cell disease, SLE, hemolytic uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura)
- rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis(RPGNs) - several.
Treatment is dependent on the underlying etiology (cause).
Prognosis depends on the underlying etiology.
- Acute nephritic syndrome- medlineplus.org
- Nephritic syndrome- A to Z topics.
- Nephritic syndrome- Merck Manual.fr:Syndrome néphritique
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephritic+syndrome Wikipedia article Nephritic syndrome.