Moral universalism is a moralview, often related to humanist philosophy, which claims that the fundamental basis for a universalist ethic—'universally' applicable to all humanity—can be derived or inferred from what is common among existing moral codes. It stands as a compromise between moral absolutism, and moral relativism, where situationalhuman factors, like culture, dictate moral value.
Moral universalism finds that moral actions are tied to the act itself, not regardless of the cultural context, but in respect of the basic ethical standards that exist in all cultures.
As there are those not bound by the JudaicTen Commandments, or Eastern religious traditions, and since there is substantial disagreement between people of different religious traditions, a standard which describes the essence of all human moral thought is considered a necessity. A universal morality applies to all people in a secularway without basing its ideology in religious traditions.
The world court, human rights, international law, and crimes against humanityare all new terms that are part of global efforts to bring a universalist, equal, and common moral justice to all peoples.
There is, however, some form of universal absolutism as a moral stance, the Universal Declaration of Human Rightsbeing an example of this.
Moral Universalism first appeared as a formalized ethical theory amongst the Stoics of ancient Greece (it continues to be a central premise within modern Stoicism, as well). Stoics believe in the supremacy of some form of divine plan or natural order which stands inviolable and according to which everything happens. According to Stoic ethical philosophy, the existence of immoral men and the perpetration of immoral activities is all part of the natural or divine order of the universe, however, the existence of immorality in the world can solely be attributed to a lack of understanding of or regard for the divine order of the universe: immorality is perpetrated only by those who are either under the false judgements that they are in fact acting ethically, or by those who simply have a lack of healthy respect for proper ethical concerns. Although Moral Universalism, as an idea, has evolved much from its origins in Stoicism, it continues to find its greatest wellspring of philosophical support in that school of thought.
- Felicific calculus
- Ethical calculus
- John Stuart Mill
- Jeremy Bentham
- Stoicismfi:Moraalinen universalismi
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It uses material from the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral+universalism Wikipedia article Moral universalism.