|| I80, I82.1
Thrombophlebitis is phlebitis(vein inflammation) related to a blood clot or thrombus. When is occurs repeatedly in different locations, it is known as "Thrombophlebitis migrans".
- 1 Causes, incidence, and risk factors
- 2 Symptoms
- 3 Signs and tests
- 4 Treatment
- 5 Prognosis
- 6 Complications
- 7 Prevention
- 8 Source
- 9 External links
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Thrombophlebitis is related to a blood clot (thrombus) in the vein. Risk factors include prolonged sitting and disorders related to blood clotting. Specific disorders associated with thrombophlebitis include superficial thrombophlebitis (affects veins near the skin surface) and deep venous thrombosis(affects deeper, larger veins).
The following symptoms are often associated with thrombophlebitis:
- tenderness over the vein
- pain in the part of the body affected
- skin redness or inflammation (not always present)
- swelling (edema) of the extremities (ankle and foot)
- intermittent claudication
Signs and tests
The health care provider makes the diagnosis primarily based on the appearance of the affected area. Frequent checks of the pulse, blood pressure, temperature, skincondition, and circulationmay be required.
If the cause is not readily identifiable, tests may be performed to determine the cause, including the following:
- Doppler ultrasound
- Extremity arteriography
- Blood coagulationstudies
For more specific recommendations, see the particular condition. In general, treatment may include the following:
- anticoagulantsor blood thinners to prevent new clot formation
- thrombolyticsto dissolve an existing clot
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofento reduce pain and inflammation
- antibiotics(if infectionis present)
- Support stockings and wraps to reduce discomfort
The patient may be advised to do the following:
- Elevate the affected area to reduce swelling.
- Keep pressure off of the area to reduce pain and decrease the risk of further damage.
- Apply moist heat to reduce inflammation and pain.
- Surgicalremoval, stripping, or bypass of the vein is rarely needed but may be recommended in some situations.
Thrombophlebitis and other forms of phlebitis usually respond to prompt medical treatment.
Complications are rare, but when they occur they can be serious. The most serious complication may be the fragmentation of the blood clot and its travel to the brain, the heartor the lungs, where it may cause strokeor infarction, which may be life-threatening or disabilitating.
Routine changing of intravenous (IV) lines helps to prevent phlebitis related to IV lines. See the specific disorders associated with thrombophlebitis for other preventive measures.
- Thrombophlebitis. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Public domain text. Update Date: 4/19/2004. Updated by: Brian F. Burke M.D., Department of Internal Medicine, Munson Medical Center, Traverse City, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrombophlebitis Wikipedia article Thrombophlebitis.