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Swine Flu (or Swine influenzavirus (SIV) flu) refers to a subset of Orthomyxoviridae that creates influenza in pigs and are endemic in pigs. This is not a phylogenetics based taxonomic category.The species of Orthomyxoviridae that can cause flu in pigs are Influenza A virus and Influenza C virus but not all genotypes of these two species infect pigs. Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow article Swine influenza: a zoonosis by Paul Heinen dated 15 September 2003 says "Influenza B and C viruses are almost exclusively isolated from man, although influenza C virus has also been isolated from pigs and influenza B has recently been isolated from seals."The known subtypes of Influenza A virus that create influenza in pigs and are endemic in pigs are H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 and H3N2. Swine Diseases (Chest) - Swine Influenza, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine eurekalert Tips from the Journals of the American Society for Microbiology - Novel H3N1 Swine Influenza Virus Identified in Pigs in Korea"In swine, 3 influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2) are circulating throughout the world. In the United States, the classic H1N1 subtype was exclusively prevalent among swine populations before 1998; however, since late August 1998, H3N2 subtypes have been isolated from pigs. Most H3N2 virus isolates are triple reassortants, containing genes from human (HA, NA, and PB1), swine (NS, NP, and M), and avian (PB2 and PA) lineages. ... Present vaccination strategies for SIV control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of 1 of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. Of the 97 recent H3N2 isolates examined, only 41 isolates had strong serologic cross-reactions with antiserum to 3 commercial SIV vaccines. Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests that current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses." pubmedcentral.nih.gov Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research (2007 July; 71(3): 201–206.) article Serologic and genetic characterization of North American H3N2 swine influenza A viruses by Marie René Gramer, Jee Hoon Lee, Young Ki Choi, Sagar M. Goyal, and Han Soo Joo
Veterinary swine flu vaccine Swine influenza has become a greater problem in recent decades. Evolution of the virus has resulted in inconsistent responses to traditional vaccines. Standard commercial swine flu vaccines are effective in controlling the problem when the virus strains match enough to have significant cross-protection and custom (autogenous) vaccines made from the specific viruses isolated are created and used in the more difficult cases. National Hog Farmer article Swine Flu Virus Turns Endemic published September 15, 2007 SIV vaccine manufacture Novartis paints this picture: "A strain of swine influenza virus (SIV) called H3N2, first identified in the US in 1998, has brought exasperating production losses to swine producers. Abortion storms are a common sign. Sows go off feed for two or three days and run a fever up to 106°F. Mortality in a naïve herd can run as high as 15%." livestock.novartis.com Custom Vaccines: Swine
The U.S. swine flu scare of 1976 On February 5, 1976, an army recruit at Fort Dix said he felt tired and weak. He died the next day and four of his fellow soldiers were later hospitalized. Two weeks after his death, health officials announced that swine flu was the cause of death and that this strain of flu appeared to be closely related to the strain involved in the 1918 flu pandemic. Alarmed public-health officials decided that action must be taken to head off another major pandemic, and they urged that every person in the U.S. be vaccinated for the disease. President Gerald Ford was confronted with a potential swine flu pandemic. The vaccination program was plagued by delays and public relations problems, but about 24% of the population was vaccinated by the time the program was cancelled. The Sky is Falling: An Analysis of the Swine Flu Affair of 1976An immunopathological reaction to the vaccine in some people is believed to have caused about 500 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome resulting in death from severe pulmonary complications for 25 people. More people died from the vaccine than died from the swine flu itself. Other influenza vaccines have not been clearly linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome. University of Illinois at Springfield
The Philippine swine flu outbreak of 2007 On August 20, 2007, Department of Agriculture officers investigated the outbreak of swine flu in Nueva Ecija and Central Luzon, Philippines. The mortality rate is less than 10 % for swine flu, if there are no complications like hog cholera. Earlier, or on July 27, 2007, the Philippine National Meat Inspection Service (NMIS) raised a hog cholera "red alert" warning over Metro Manila and 5 regions of Luzon after the disease spread to backyard pig farms in Bulacan and Pampanga, even if these tested negative for the swine flu virus.[http://www.gmanews.tv/story/56805/DA-probes-reported-swine-flu-outbreak-in-N-Ecija GMA NEWS.TV, DA probes reported swine flu 'outbreak' in N. Ecija][http://www.gmanews.tv/story/53014/Govt-declares-hog-cholera-alert-in-Luzon GMA NEWS.TV, Gov't declares hog cholera alert in Luzon]
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