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| Section2 = Nitenpyram is a pesticide used in agriculture and veterinary medicine to help treat unwanted pestshttp://www.lygpesticide.com/template/pe4.htm. In veterinary medicine, it is used orally with dogs and cats to control fleas under the brandname "Capstar"http://www.ah.novartis.com/products/en/cab/capstar.shtml. After ingestion, it takes only 30 minutes for the pill to kill every adult flea on the pet. The effects of this pill are approximately 12 hours. Capstar is safe to use on puppies and kittens as young as 4 weeks old so long as they are at least 2 pounds.Nitenpyram is a neonicotinoid, which means that it is a neurotoxin that blocks the ability for neural messages to transmit through the central nervous system of the flea causing (almost) instant death.It has no long-term residal activity and therefore should not be used as a month-long flea preventative. It is usually used to quickly kill adult fleas on an animal for a day to give immediate relief in flea infestations and is followed up with Frontline, Advantage, or some other long-term flea preventative to prevent reinfestation. In heavily infested animals, it can cause extreme itching as the fleas die; this almost always resolves on its own.It is very useful as part of the protocol in treating environmental infestations.
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