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| MeshID = D007247 Female infertility
is a term that refers to infertility in female humans.
Factors relating only to female infertility are:
General factorsSignificant liver, kidney disease
Hypothalamic-pituitary factorsHypothalamic dysfunction
Ovarian factorsPolycystic ovarian syndromeAnovulationDiminished ovarian reserve, also see Poor Ovarian ReservePremature menopauseMenopauseLuteal dysfunction
Gonadal dysgenesis (Turner syndrome)Ovarian cancer
Tubal (ectopic)/peritoneal factorsEndometriosis
Pelvic adhesionsPelvic inflammatory disease (PID, usually due to chlamydia) Tubal occlusion Tubal dysfunction
Uterine factorsUterine malformations
Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma)Asherman's Syndrome
Cervical factorsCervical stenosis
Antisperm antibodies Non-receptive cervical mucus
Genetic factorsVarious intersexed conditions, such as androgen insensitivity syndrome
Diagnosis of infertility begins with a medical history and physical exam. The healthcare provider may order tests, including the following: an endometrial biopsy, to verify ovulation and inspect the lining of the uterus
hormone testing, to measure levels of female hormones at certain times during a menstrual cycle
day 2 or 3 measure of FSH and estrogen, to assess ovarian reserve
measurements of thyroid function
(a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level of between 1 and 2 is considered optimal for conception)
laparoscopy, which allows the provider to inspect the pelvic organs
measurement of progesterone in the second half of the cycle to help confirm ovulation
Pap smear, to check for signs of infection
pelvic exam, to look for abnormalities or infection
a postcoital test, which is done soon after intercourse to check for problems with sperm surviving in cervical mucous (not commonly used now because of test unreliability)
special X-ray tests
Diagnosis and treatment of infertility should be made by physicians who are fellowship trained as reproductive endocrinologists. Reproductive Endocrinologists are usually Obstetrician-Gynecologists with advanced training in Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility (in North America). These highly educated professionals and qualified physicians treat Reproductive Disorders affecting not only women but also men, children, and teens. Prospective patients should note that reproductive endocrinology & infertility medical practices do not see women for general maternity care. The practice is primarily focused on helping their patients to conceive and to correct any issues related to recurring pregnancy loss.
Some cases of female infertility may be prevented by taking the following steps:
Avoid excessive exercise.
Control diseases such as diabetes and hypothyroidism
Eat a well balanced nutritious diet with plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables (plenty of folates).
Follow good weight management guidelines.
Practice safer sex to avoid sexually transmitted diseases.
Get early treatment for sexually transmitted diseases.
Have regular physical examinations (including pap smears) to detect early signs of infections or abnormalities.
Limit caffeine and alcohol intake.
Ask your mother (biological) to share any unusual or abnormal issues she had related to conceiving. For example, premature menopause in your mother can be genetic and passed on to you, which limits the years in which you will have optimal egg quality.
Fertility starts declining after age 27 and drops at a somewhat greater rate after age 35.
It should be noted, however, that fertility does not ultimately cease before menopause.
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