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Pronounciation is like "ba-ka-na-eh", not "ba-ka-nay". The latter would be baka neh?, meaning, rudely, "aren't you stupid?" or bakanae disease(馬鹿苗病, バカナエビョウ, Bakanae-byo), from the Japanese for "foolish seedling", is a disease that infects the rice plant. It is caused by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi, whose metabolism produces a surplus of gibberellic acid, which acts as a growth hormone for the plant; this causes hypertrophy. The afflicted plants, which are visibly etiolated and chlorotic, are at best infertile with empty panicles, producing no edible grains; at worst, they are incapable of supporting their own weight, topple over, and die (hence "foolish seedling disease").The earliest known report of bakanae is from 1828; it was first described scientifically in 1898 by Japanese researcher Shotaro Hori, who showed that the causative agent was fungal.A Short History of Gibberellins at Plant-Hormones.info.Bakanae affects rice crops in Asia, Africa, and North America; in 2003, the International Rice Research Institute estimated bakanae-related crop losses at between 20% and 50% Bakanae fact sheet at RiceDoctor.
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